In Hindu cosmology, the surface of the earth is represented as a square, which, after the triangle is the most fundamental of all Hindu forms. The earth is represented as four cornered with reference to the horizon's relationship with sunrise and sunset, the north and south direction. The earth is thus called Caturbhrsti (four-cornered) and is represented in the symbolic form of the Prithvi Mandala.

The astrological charts or horoscopes (Rasi, Navamsa, etc) also represent in a square plan the ecliptic—the positions of the sun, moon, planets and zodiacal constellations with reference to the native's place and time of birth. The Vaastu Purusha Mandala is the metaphysical plan of a building, temple or site that incorporates the course of the heavenly bodies and supernatural forces. The Mandala of the hexagram, somewhat resembling the Star of David, is an archetypal symbol for the sacred union of opposite energies. Formed by the intertwining of the "fire" and "water" triangles this symbol represents the masculine and feminine principles in perfect union. In India, the symbol represents the "cosmic dance" of Shiva and Shakti. The Star symbol has been found on temples in India from almost 10,000 years ago. In addition to the balance between man and woman, the Star symbolizes the Nara-Narayana or perfect meditative balancing state achieved between Man and God, and if maintained, results in "Moksha", or "Nirvana", i.e., release from the bounds of the earthly world and its material trappings.